In this article, we have listed images of structure and labeled diagrams of chromosomes, labeled chromosome images of different conditions and other images.
Labeled structure of chromosome:
We have a tone of articles, blog posts and other information regarding the structure of chromosomes on the internet. So I think, explaining everything, again and again, is a waste of time. I am explaining the structure of chromosomes elaborately.
From the labeled chromosome diagram, you can see that a typical chromosome structure is an X-shaped complex network of DNA and protein. It has four arms; two short arms are known as “p arm” while two long arms are known as “q arms”.
Genes- a unit of inheritance, are located on chromosome arms. The tip of chromosomes is known as a telomere having repetitive DNA present. The central portion which holds all four chromatids is known as the centromere. Again the DNA sequences present at centromere are non-coding.
The q arm usually consist of more genes than the p arm and hence also consider as more gene-rich arm.
Labeled diagram of chromosome:
The diagram given below shows different banding patterns of chromosomes. When chromosomes are banded using GTG banding or Q banding, varied banding patterns on chromosomes appear. euchromatin- gene-rich, loosely packed regions and heterochromatin- gene-less, compactly packed regions are responsible for obtaining differential banding patterns.
Technically, each chromosome has a different number of bands and banding patterns depending upon that, researchers identify each chromosome. Here in the diagram, we have shown how different light and dark chromosome bands look.
Labeled chromosome images:
Every chromosome is different in terms of the structure and density of genes. based on that chromosomes are classified into different groups like metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric and telocentric. The hypothetical image is given below but if you wish to learn more, you can read this article:
Labeled chromosome translocation images:
Chromosome translocation occurs when some portion of one chromosome deletes and incorporated into another chromosome. The classic example of translocation is Philadelphia chromosome- translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. You can read our article on translocation here:
Labelled chromosome deletion images:
Deletion occur when a portion of chromosome gets deleted. You can read of our article on chromosome deletion here:
Labelled X and Y chromosomes:
The X and Y chromosomes are considered as sex-chromosomes and present in pair- XX in female and XY in male. The X chromosome is metacentric while the Y chromosome is acrocentric. Important genes such as SRY or TDF are located on the Y chromosomes and are responsible for maleness.
A mechanism called X chromosome inactivation helps to regulate gene expression in females as they have two X chromosomes. You can read this article to learn more:
Labeled chromosome structure and diagrams show that chromosomes are made up of arms joined by the centromere and have genes on them. Chromosomes are important for our life as total DNA is located on 23 pairs of human chromosomes.
Any sudden or long-term alteration causes serious problems for a person. Those alterations are categorized into genetic disorders, mostly incurable.
These images are free of copy right, you can download it and use it.