How to Present Karyotype in a Standard Form?

Karyotype and karyotyping are similar terms, though, are different. Karyotyping is a genetic process of obtaining metaphase chromosomes while karyotype is an arranged form of it. 

A standard form of a karyotype is when arranged pairwise in order to encounter any defects. The karyotyping or put simply, a karyotype is a technique to observe and analyze chromosomes for various functions. 

Scientists perform it to detect structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities. Although numerical chromosomal defects can be detected easily. 

Macro photography is one of the best photography techniques to visualize chromosomes under a microscope. Practically, many pictures of chromosomes we need to observe during chromosome or karyotyping evaluation, so the question arises in mind, which form of karyotype is a standard and how to present karyotype in a standard form?

Let’s check it out in this article,

How to present karyotype in a standard form?

Check out this images first,

The karyotype image
The karyotype image under microscope
Karyotyping field images in 10X, 45X and 100X.

Neither of the above images is a standard form of a karyotype. These images are just metaphase fields plain and colored, observed directly under microscope by camera. We can count chromosomes but can’t predict results until karyotyped.

Check out this image,

Human karyotype with X and Y chromosomes
Human karyotype with X and Y chromosomes and translocation between chromosome 13 and 14.

When the karyotypes arranged pairwise, with their correct pair, and compared with reference template chromosomes, it is known as “karyotype” or “idiogram”, a standard form of a karyotype.

The purpose of doing a karyotype is to evaluate each and every pair of chromosomes. We can’t predict anything only by visualizing chromosomes microscopically; those are just metaphases. We need to arrange it- correctly for experts to evaluate.

Although many softwares are available to do so, only expert interprets final results.

Noteworthy, any results aren’t conclusive without a reference or standard, here in figure 3 every pair are arranged along with a reference template, to get an idea about the length, type and banding pattern of chromosomes.

If we analyse the standard karyotype in depth, we can clearly observe the darker and light bands of sample karyotype matching with the template one. This helps in interpreting results.

For example, see chromosomes 13 and 14, one entire ‘q’ arm of the chromosome is translocated to chromosome 13. We can clearly encounter it. And it is possible using the standard karyotype form or using the templates with the pair.

Conclusion:

Without a standard form of karyotype results can’t be observed and prepared. With a karyotype report, a standard karyotype is also attached for reference purposes. This article is a short one! I know but is very important to understand at least for a novice. I hope you like it.

Thank you for reading this blog.

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