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By Dr Tushar Chauhan October 18, 2022

DNA- full name, Structure and Function

DNA is the most crucial biomolecule present in life on earth. Here is the full name, structure and function of DNA.

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The full name of DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid.

Image credit: National genome research institute

Full Name

DNA is made up of three components- pentose sugar, nitrogenous bases and Phosphate backbone.

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Two types of nitrogenous bases in DNA are Purines and Pyrimidines. Adenine and Guanine are Purine while Thymine and Cytosine are Pyrimidine bases.

Image credit: National genome research institute

Nitrogenous bases

The 3’ end contains free OH while the 5’ end of DNA contains free -P. DNA is negatively charged.

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DNA is present in a double-stranded helical form. Two single-stranded DNA are bounded by hydrogen bonds.

Image credit: National genome research institute


Three hydrogen bonds between Guanine and Cytosine and Two between Adenine and Thymine are joins two different single DNA strands.

Image credit: Alexander Antropov from Pixabay. 

Hydrogen bonds

Two main functions of DNA are to form protein and regulate gene expression. Coding and non-coding parts do the jobs, respectively.

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DNA inherited from one to another cell thereby one to another generation. In this way, it transmits traits.

Image credit: MaxPhilip from Pixabay.

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